Clay-colored stools and nausea and vomiting are the other symptoms of gallstones.
The following are the other symptoms that occur due to gallstones:
- Clay-colored stools
- Nausea and vomiting
Gallstones are formed due to imbalance in bilirubin and high levels of ___________
The gallstones are caused due to an imbalance in the chemical composition of bile inside the gallbladder. The levels of cholesterol in bile become too high and the excess cholesterol forms into stones. There are two main types of gallstones, cholesterol stones and pigmented stones. Pigmented gallstones are formed by bilirubin.
Symptoms occurif a large stone blocks a tube or duct that drains the gallbladder.
If a large stone blocks a tube or duct that drains the gallbladder, you may have a cramping pain in the middle to right upper abdomen. This is known as biliary colic. The pain goes away if the stone passes into the small intestine. The following are the symptoms that may occur:
- Pain in the right upper or middle upper abdomen for at least 30 minutes. The pain may be constant or cramping. It can feel sharp or dull.
- Yellowing of skin and whites of the eyes
There is only one type of gallstone.
There are two main types of gallstones, cholesterol stones and pigmented stones. Cholesterol stones are formed by excess levels of cholesterol. Pigmented gallstones are formed by bilirubin.
When gallstones cause symptoms or complications, it is known as ___________
When gallstones cause symptoms or complications, it is known as gallstone disease or cholelithiasis.
Other causes that can contribute to formation of gallstones include ___________
The following are the causes that can contribute to formation of gallstones:
- Bone marrow or solid organ transplant
- Failure of the gallbladder to empty bile properly
- Liver cirrhosis and biliary tract infections
- Medical conditions that cause too many red blood cells to be destroyed
- Rapid weight loss from eating a very low-calorie diet, or after weight loss surgery
- Receiving nutrition through a vein for a long period of time (intravenous feedings)
- Taking birth control pills
Blood tests are not done to diagnose gallstones.
Your doctor may also order the following blood tests to diagnose gallstones:
- Liver function tests
- Pancreatic enzymes
Blockage cause by gallstones can cause infection of liver.
Blockage by gallstones may result in swelling or infection of the following:
- Gallbladder (cholecystitis)
- Tube that carries bile from the liver to the gallbladder and intestines (cholangitis)
- Pancreas (pancreatitis)
Gallstones are hard deposits of bile that form inside the ___________
Gallstones are hard deposits of bile that form inside the gallbladder. Gallbladder is a small organ under the liver.
Bile is produced in the gallbladder.
Bile is a digestive fluid produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder.
Mostly, gallstones are large that cause symptoms.
Gallstones may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. Mostly, they don't cause any symptoms and don't need to be treated.
Which of the following is part of gallstones treatment?
Gallstones are not treated if they don’t cause any symptoms. They are treated if they cause gallbladder inflammation or blockage of the bile ducts. Gallstones are treated in the following manner:
- Laparoscopiccholecystectomy: This procedure is performed to remove gallbladder by laparoscopic techniques.
- Open cholecystectomy: This procedure is used to remove gallbladder, if it is not possible to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
- Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): This procedure is done to find or treat gallstones in the common bile duct.
- Sphincterotomy: This procedure is also used to find or treat gallstones in the common bile duct.
- Lithotripsy: This procedure is used to break up the gallstones, so that they can pass in the stools.
- Ursodeoxycholic acid: This medication is given in the form of a pill to dissolve cholesterol gallstones. The results are very slow and can take upto 2 years to dissolve the stones.
Tests that are done to detect gallstones include ____________
Your doctor will use the following imaging tests to detect gallstones or gallbladder inflammation:
- Abdominal ultrasound
- Abdominal CT scan
- Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
- Gallbladder radionuclide scan
- Endoscopic ultrasound
- Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)
- Percutaneous transhepaticcholangiogram (PTCA)